When CISL English for Academic Purposes students learn to write academic English research papers, students often have difficulty citing their sources. The problem? Finding synonyms for the word “say” in order to avoid repetition in their paper. The following verbs for citations can be used in place of “say.” Some are more appropriate than others depending on the situation: to better understand their usage, we are providing the situation in which we can use this word (as well as an example, which uses the MLA format for citing sources).
With each example, we are imagining a research paper written on the effects of caffeine. We will cite an imaginary scientist with the last name “Jacobs.”
Verbs for Citations
Usage: to cite a person who says something contrary to another argument.
Example: While many believe caffeine is harmful, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania argue that in small doses, caffeine can stimulate brain function and awareness (Jacobs 2017).
Usage: to cite a person who says something confidently or with force.
Example: Despite arguments against the validity of his research, the professor asserts that the study’s findings are accurate (Jacobs 2017).
Usage: to cite someone who is stating or asserting that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.
Example: The anti-environment group claimed that research about global warming was flawed (Jacobs 2017).
Usage: to cite someone who is making (secret or new information) known.
Example: Jacobs disclosed that the research was funded by a pharmaceutical company with the intention of making their new drug appear effective (199: 2017).
Usage: to make private or sensitive information known.
Example: The summary divulged that the study was funded by the government (Jacobs 2017).
Usage: to cite a person who keeps their opinion, despite claims against it.
Example: Although over the years other studies have been published stating the dangers of caffeine, Jacobs maintains that the original study is correct and that caffeine in small doses is beneficial (199: 2017).
Usage: to cite a person who is pointing out something interesting, adding a fact or piece of information.
Example: Jacobs additionally notes that caffeine has been shown to help maintain steady sleep patterns when used effectively (198: 2017).
Usage: the phrasal verb “to point out” means to bring attention to an important fact.
Example: Jacobs also points out that many of the studies regarding the benefits of caffeine were paid for by the coffee industry, while his study was funded by a government grant (198: 2017).
Usage: to cite a person who draws a conclusion based on information, evidence, or knowledge.
Example: Scientists reasoned that the study’s results were due to the use of regulated doses of coffee, as opposed to studies that gave subjects higher doses of caffeine (Jacobs 2017).
Usage: a more formal synonym for the word “say.”
Example: Jacobs also states that the study was the first of its kind (194: 2017).
Did you notice that each of the above words are followed by the word “that?” This is optional. To find out why, read our article on Defining vs. Non-defining Relative Clauses.
Would you like some more examples of verbs for citations? Check out the University of Toronto, Scarborough’s list of Verbs for Citing Sources, the University of Portsmouth’s Verbs for Citations list, or Centralia College in Washington’s useful Verbs of Attribution download.