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Academic English EAP Featured University Pathway Vocabulary

50 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

October 28, 2017

 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays
In English, we often have to analyze data, research, or facts. Do you know how to do this effectively, while using the appropriate verbs of analysis? This list of 50 verbs of analysis in English will help you.

Note: this list is for advanced English learners (CEFR level B2 or above). All definitions are from the Cambridge Dictionary online

50 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

Affects

Definition: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something.

Example: Experts agree that coffee affects the body in ways we have not yet studied.

Amplifies

Definition: to increase the size or effect of something.

Example: It has been shown that this drug amplifies the side effects that were experienced by patients in previous trials.

Asserts

Definition: to say that something is certainly true.

Example: Smith asserts that his findings are valid, despite criticism by colleagues.

Characterizes

Definition: Something that characterizes another thing is typical of it.

Example: His early paintings are characterized by a distinctive pattern of blue and yellow.

Claims

Definition: to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it.

Example: Smith claims that the study is the first of its kind, and very different from the 2015 study he conducted.

Clarifies

Definition: to make something clear or easier to understand by giving more details or a simpler explanation.

Example: The professor clarified her statement with a later, more detailed, statement.

Compiles

Definition: to collect information from different places and arrange it in a book, report, or list.

Example: After compiling the data, the scientists authored a ten-page paper on their study and its findings.

Concludes

Definition: to judge or decide something after thinking carefully about it.

Example: Doctor Jensen concluded that the drug wasn’t working, so he switched his patient to a new medicine.

Confirms

Definition: to prove that a belief or an opinion that was previously not completely certain is true.

Example: This new data confirms the hypothesis many researchers had.

Connects

Definition: to join or be joined with something else.

Example: By including the criticisms of two researchers, Smith connects two seemingly different theories and illustrates a trend with writers of the Romanticism period.

 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

Differentiates

Definition: to show or find the difference between things that are compared.

Example: Smith differentiates between the two theories in paragraph 4 of the second part of the study.

Diminishes

Definition: to reduce or be reduced in size or importance.

Example: The new findings do not diminish the findings of previous research; rather, it builds on it to present a more complicated theory about the effects of global warming.

Discredits

Definition: to cause people to stop respecting someone or believing in an idea or person.

Example: The details about the improper research done by the institution discredits the institution’s newest research.

Displays

Definition: to show.

Example: Smith’s findings display the effects of global warming that have not yet been considered by other scientists.

Disproves

Definition:to prove that something is not true.

Example: Scientists hope that this new research will disprove the myth that vaccines are harmful to children.

Distinguishes

Definition:to notice or understand the difference between two things, or to make one person or thing seem different from another.

Example: Our study seems similar to another one by Duke University: how can we distinguish ourselves and our research from this study?

Elaborates

Definition: to add more information to or explain something that you have said.

Example: In this new paper, Smith elaborates on theories she discussed in her 2012 book.

Embodies

Definition: to represent a quality or an idea exactly.

Example: Shakespeare embodies English theater, but few can understand the antiquated (old) form of English that is used in the plays.

Emulates

Definition: to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have.

Example: Although the study emulates some of the scientific methods used in previous research, it also offers some inventive new research methods.

Enhances

Definition: to improve the quality, amount, or strength of something.

Example: The pharmaceutical company is looking for ways to enhance the effectiveness of its current drug for depression.

 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

Entails

Definition: to make something necessary, or to involve something.

Example: The scientist’s study entails several different stages, which are detailed in the report.

Equates

Definition: to consider one thing to be the same as or equal to another thing.

Example: Findings from both studies equate; therefore, we can conclude that they are both accurate.

Establishes

Definition: to discover or get proof of something.

Example: The award establishes the main causes of global warming.

Evokes

Definition: to make someone remember something or feel an emotion.

Example: The artist’s painting evokes the work of some of the painters from the early 1800s.

Exhibits

Definition: to show something.

Example: Some of the research study participants exhibit similar symptoms while taking the medicine.

Facilitates

Definition: to make something possible or easier.

Example: The equipment that facilitates the study is expensive and of high-quality.

Focuses

Definition: the main or central point of something, especially of attention or interest.

Example: The author focuses on World War II, which is an era she hasn’t written about before.

Foreshadows

Definition: to act as a warning or sign of a future event.

Example: The sick bird at the beginning of the novel foreshadows the illness the main character develops later in the book.

Formulates

Definition: to develop all the details of a plan for doing something.

Example: Two teams of scientists formulated the research methods for the study.

Generates

Definition: to cause something to exist.

Example: The study’s findings have generated many questions about this new species of frog in South America.

 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

Highlights

Definition:  to attract attention to or emphasize something important.

Example: The author, Dr. Smith, highlights the need for further studies on the possible causes of cancer among farm workers.

Identifies

Definition: to recognize a problem, need, fact, etc. and to show that it exists.

Example: Through this study, scientists were able to identify three of the main factors causing global warming.

Illustrates

Definition:  to show the meaning or truth of something more clearly,especially by giving examples.

Example: Dr. Robin’s study illustrates the need for more research on the effects of this experimental drug.

Implies

Definition: to communicate an idea or feeling without saying it directly.

Example: The study implies that there are many outside factors (other than diet and exercise) which determine a person’s tendency to gain weight.

Incorporates

Definition: to include something as part of something larger.

Example: Dr. Smith incorporates research findings from 15 other studies in her well-researched paper.

Indicates

Definition: to show, point, or make clear in another way.

Example: Overall, the study indicates that there is no real danger (other than a lack of sleep) to drinking three cups of coffee per day.

Infers

Definition: to form an opinion or guess that something is true because of the information that you have.

Example: From this study about a new medicine, we can infer that it will work similarly to other drugs that are currently being sold.

Informs

Definition: to tell someone about particular facts.

Example: Dr. Smith informs the reader that there are some issues with this study: the oddly rainy weather in 2017 made it difficult for them to record the movements of the birds they were studying.

Insinuates

Definition: to suggest, without being direct, that something unpleasant is true.

Example: In addition to the reported conclusions, the study insinuates that there are many hidden dangers to driving while texting.

Integrates

Definition: to combine two or more things in order to become more effective.

Example: The study about the popularity of social media integrates Facebook and Instagram hashtag use.

 Verbs of Analysis for English Academic Essays

Lacks

Definition: to not have or not have enough of something that is needed or wanted.

Example: What the study lacks, I believe, is a clear outline of the future research that is needed.

Legitimizes

Definition: to make something legal or acceptable.

Example: Although the study legitimizes the existence of global warming, some will continue to think it is a hoax.

Magnifies

Definition: to make a problem bigger or more important.

Example: In conclusion, the scientists determined that the new pharmaceutical actually magnifies some of the symptoms of anxiety.

Models

Definition: something that a copy can be based on because it is an extremely good example of its type.

Example: The study models a similar one from 1973, which needed to be redone with modern equipment.

Negates

Definition: to cause something to have no effect.

Example: This negates previous findings that say that sulphur in wine gives people headaches.

Neglects

Definition: to not give enough care or attention to people or things that are your responsibility.

Example: The study neglects to mention another study in 2015 that had very different findings.

Obscures

Definition: to make something difficult to discover and understand.

Example: The problems with the equipment obscures the study.

Outlines

Definition: a description of the main facts about something.

Example: Before describing the research methods, the researchers outline the need for a study on the effects of anti-anxiety medication on children.

Overlooks

Definition:  to fail to notice or consider something or someone.

Example: I personally feel that the study overlooks something very important: the participants might have answered some of the questions incorrectly.

Parallels

Definition: to happen at the same time as something else, or be similar or equal to something else.

Example: Although the study parallels the procedures of a 2010 study, it has very different findings.

Converse International School of Languages offers an English for Academic Purposes course for students interested in improving their academic English skills. Students may take this course, which is offered in the afternoon for 12 weeks, at both CISL San Diego and CISL San Francisco. EAP course graduates can go on to CISL’s Academic Year Abroad program, where students attend one semester at a California Community College. Through CISL’s University Pathway program, EAP graduates may also attend college or university at one of CISL’s Pathway Partners. See the list of 25+ partners on the CISL website. Contact CISL for more information.  

Career English CISL Premier CISL Premier English CISL San Diego English for Engineers Featured Vocabulary

20 Useful Vocabulary Words for an Engineering Resume

August 15, 2017

Useful Engineering Resume Vocabulary Words in English

Writing a resume is difficult: how can you describe yourself, your education, and your accomplishments without sounding cliche, boring, or arrogant? Verbs that concisely explain your job responsibilities will help you when writing a resume. These 20 useful engineering resume vocabulary words will help you when applying for your engineering job or internship.

Note: these terms have been selected for several engineering fields, including biochemical engineering, mechanical, structural, operational, and civic engineering. The form of the word given is the past tense of each verb, and the example is written in the style you might see on a resume. To better understand the format of a U.S. style resume, see our articles “Resume vs. CV: What Is the Difference?.”

20 Useful Engineering Resume Vocabulary Words

Accelerated

Definition: Increase in rate, amount, or extent.

Example: Invented a machine that accelerated production speeds.

Affected

Definition: Have an effect on; make a difference.

Example: Affected change in production by designing a more efficient machine.

Analyzed

Definition: Examine (something) methodically and in detail, typically in order to explain and interpret it.

Example: Analyzed data from surveyors to make informed suggestions regarding city planning.

Applied

Definition: Make something be applicable or relevant.

Example: Applied various structural engineering theories to work in the field and in the office.

Appraised

Definition: Assess the value or quality of.

Example: Appraised local structures to determine their durability.

Briefed

Definition: Instruct or inform (someone) thoroughly, especially in preparation for a task.

Example: Briefed city officials on the status of local bridges and other structures.

Useful Engineering Resume Vocabulary Words in English

Cataloged

Definition: Make a systematic list of (items of the same type).

Example: Cataloged laboratory data for analysis.

Diagrammed

Definition: Represent (something) in graphic form.

Example: Diagrammed electrical circuits of residential and office buildings.

Diagnosed

Definition: Identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms.

Example: Diagnosed weak areas of older buildings in order to suggest repairs.

Enabled

Definition: Make (a device or system) operational; activate.

Example: Enabled a new form of solar-powered energy.

Engineered

Definition: Skilfully arrange for (something) to occur; design and build (a machine or structure).

Example: Engineered a new form of solar energy collection.

Useful Engineering Resume Vocabulary Words in English

Facilitated

Definition: Make (an action or process) easy or easier.

Example: Facilitated meetings between business owners and local residents regarding structural damage to local buildings.

 

Installed

Definition: Place or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use.

Example: Installed new circuits for energy-efficient electricity throughout the building.

Mapped

Definition: Record in detail the spatial distribution of (something).

Example: Mapped data regarding energy consumption throughout the city.

Measured

Definition: Ascertain the size, amount, or degree of (something) by using an instrument or device marked in standard units.

Example: Measured the levels of pollution in local waters.

Modeled

Definition: Use (a system, procedure, etc.) as an example to follow or imitate.

Example: Modeled new software on components of previous versions.

Modified

Definition: Altered or changed.

Example: Modified older machines to increase production.

Operated

Definition: Manage; (of a person) control the functioning of (a machine, process, or system).

Example: Operated and examined machinery for maintenance and review.

Optimized

Definition: Make the best or most effective use of (a situation or resource).

Example: Optimized production of machinery.

Revised

Definition: Reconsider and alter (something) in light of further evidence.

Example: Revised reports from biologists; included data and suggestions regarding actions to be taken.

Useful Engineering Resume Vocabulary Words in English

CISL San Diego provides an intensive English for Engineering course for students who are working in (or interested in working in) the field of engineering. This course provides the vocabulary and language skills necessary for the student’s particular field: lessons can be catered to the student’s interests and professional needs. CISL’s English for Engineering course can be taken alongside the Career English program, which places students in an American company in order to use their English skills in the workplace. Contact CISL for more information.

 

California Life Featured San Diego Vocabulary

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing (+ Surfing Vocabulary and Slang)

August 6, 2017

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing (+ Surfing Vocabulary and Slang)

Surfing is a way of life in California, so it is no surprise that surfing vocabulary and slang are parts of the language on the West Coast! We are providing an infographic from Finbin (a website about water sports) about the bodyboarding vs. surfing debate. Do you know the difference? Have you tried both, and if so, which do you prefer? The language in the infographic is for advanced students, but students of every level can learn the surfer slang it includes!

Surfing Vocabulary and Slang

Blackball (black ball)

Definition: The black flag (with a large black circle) that lifeguards use during “no surfing” times. The word is now also used to talk about prohibited areas or actions.

Example: Who is most likely to get insanely barreled in that black ball beach break?

Barreled

Definition: Hit by a wave

Example: Who is most likely to get insanely barreled in that black ball beach break?

Beach break

Definition: When waves break over a sandy area.

Example: Who is most likely to get insanely barreled in that black ball beach break?

Home break

Definition: Your preferred surf location.

Example: If your home break is a spot shared by surfers and bodyboarders alike, you’ve probably heard side comments about the unspoken rivalry.

Lineup

Definition: The line of surfers waiting (in the water) for a wave.

Example: It became easier for all types of individuals–young, old, and older–to paddle to the lineup and catch a wave to get their fill of stoke.

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing (+ Surfing Vocabulary and Slang)

Paddle

Definition: To place your arms in the water and use them to move your surfboard.

Example: It became easier for all types of individuals–young, old, and older–to paddle to the lineup and catch a wave to get their fill of stoke.

Prone position

Definition: The position a bodyboarder is in: holding on to the board, stomach on the board.

Example: The prone position offers more stability and balance.

Radical

Definition: An expression meaning “cool.”

Example: You’ll get to ride waves in more radical ways and you sure will have the biggest smile on your face.

Stoke

Definition: “excitement.”

Example: It became easier for all types of individuals–young, old, and older–to paddle to the lineup and catch a wave to get their fill of stoke.

Wipe out

Definition: To fall off the surfboard.

Example: You also won’t have to worry about falling off and wiping out.

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing

Thank you to Finbin for this infographic about the differences between bodyboarding and surfing! CISL often arranges beach activities such as surf lessons: ask the Front Desk for information or check out the month’s Activities Calendar.

Additional Vocabulary

Attest to

Definition: To affirm something is true.

Example: Global surfing competitions, giant surf brands, million-dollar surf movies, and all the images circulating on print and digital media can all attest to the overgrown bubble that has enveloped much of surfing.

Avid

Definition: Enthusiastic.

Example: Morey himself was an avid surfer.

To burst (a/one’s) bubble

Definition: To destroy a feeling of happiness or a commonly accepted idea.

Example: Tom Morey burst that bubble when he invented the bodyboard in 1971.

Catch on

Definition: To become more popular.

Example: The trend has caught on.

Charge (something)

Definition: To run to something with great speed (or, in this case, swim to something).

Example: You can charge bigger waves like it was a walk in the park with a bodyboard . . .

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing (+ Surfing Vocabulary and Slang)

Downside

Definition: Disadvantages.

Example: It’s hard to think of a downside to bodyboarding.

Dwellers

Definition: People who live somewhere.

Example: History has it that the first surfers among the Pacific dwellers were those who had royal blood.

Elevated

Definition: A higher level.

Example: Surfing has always enjoyed an elevated status as the sport of kings.

Exclusive

Definition: Not available to most people.

Example: This status gave surfing its sublime appeal, make it aspirational and somewhat exclusive.

Game for

Definition: Prepared; ready for.

Example: What are you game for?

Bodyboarding vs. Surfing (+ Surfing Vocabulary and Slang)

Physiques

Definition: Physical forms (bodies).

Example: Bodyboarding can be enjoyed by riders of all ages and physiques.

Overgrown

Definition: Enlarged; too large.

Example: Global surfing competitions, giant surf brands, million-dollar surf movies, and all the images circulating on print and digital media can all attest to the overgrown bubble that has enveloped much of surfing.

Tug-o-war

Definition: A game in which two teams pull on a rope and try to pull the team towards them.

Example: Nobody knows who declared this psychological war between wave riders and their differing weapons of choice, but it looks like the silent tug-o-war is here to stay.

Tune out

Definition: Stop listening to someone or something.

Example: If you can tune out the haters, you’ll have no reason to regret picking up a bodyboard.

Sublime

Definition: A level of spiritual happiness and divinity.

Example: This status gave surfing its sublime appeal.

Would you like to learn more surfer slang? Check out our articles The Word Gnarly, and California Surfer Slang for English Students

California Life Featured Los Angeles Vocabulary

The Most Beautiful Places in LA + 5 Beautiful English Words

July 18, 2017

In a city of nearly 4 million people, is it possible to find beautiful escapes? In Los Angeles, there certainly is. The area’s parks and beaches provide plenty of natural escapes for its residents and visitors, and there are many man-made gardens to provide relaxation and beauty. During your next trip, be sure to see the most beautiful places in LA.

The Most Beautiful Places in LA

Huntington Library and Botanical Gardens

Most Beautiful Places in LA

Over 100 acres of desert gardens, Japanese gardens, and manicured lands surround this library, which has a beautiful collection of 18th and 19th century art. Tickets are available online; the library also offers a Free Day each month.

http://www.huntington.org

The Getty Villa

Most Beautiful Places in LA Most Beautiful Places in LA

This Pacific Palisades home is a window into the art world of Ancient Greece and Rome. The house itself is even art: it was designed to look like an ancient Roman country home. Guests can tour the gardens, eat Mediterranean food at the restaurant, and of course view the impressive art collection. The Getty Villa is home to 44,000 Greek, Roman, and Etruscan items and has 23 permanent galleries (plus five galleries for exhibitions that change).

http://www.getty.edu/visit/villa/

Malibu Creek State Park

Most Beautiful Places in LA Most Beautiful Places in LA

This beautiful nature preserve is an escape from the craziness of the city (and is also famous: Hollywood producers love to use the location for movies!) You can find Malibu Creek State Park in movies such as Planet of the Apes. Visitors can hike, bike, kayak, horseback ride, and even camp.

http://www.malibucreekstatepark.org

Sandstone Peak

Most Beautiful Places in LA Most Beautiful Places in LA

One of the most beautiful views in Los Angeles is from Sandstone Peak. It is the tallest place in the Santa Monica Mountains and a popular spot for mountain climbers.

https://www.hikespeak.com/trails/sandstone-peak/

5 Beautiful English Words

Now that you’ve learned of a few beautiful places, why not learn some words related to beauty? These 5 beautiful English words will make your vocabulary a little more alluring.

Eloquence

Definition: fluent or persuasive speaking or writing.

Example: The eloquence of the speech really impressed me.

Ethereal

Definition: extremely delicate and light in a way that seems too perfect for this world.

Example: Look at this ethereal photo of my friend’s children. They are so beautiful.

Iridescent

Definition: showing luminous colors that seem to change when seen from different angles.

Example: The iridescent colors of the sunset are hard to capture in a photo.

Talisman

Definition: an object, typically an inscribed ring or stone, that is thought to have magic powers and to bring good luck.

Example: He gave her this ring as a talisman for her travels.

Waft

Definition: pass or cause to pass easily or gently through or as if through the air.

Example: The smell of the pie wafted through the house and made me hungry.

CISL San Diego students often take quick trips to Los Angeles while they are studying English in SD. Have you been? Post your photos on the CISL Facebook Page!

California Life Featured San Francisco San Francisco Travel Tips Social Media Suggested student activities Vocabulary

The 5 Best Sunset Views in SF + Sunset Color Vocab

June 21, 2017

California sunsets are one of the best things about living in this beautiful state. When you’re studying English in San Francisco, be sure to enjoy the sunset each evening! These locations offer the 5 best sunset views in SF.

How amazing are the sunsets in California? Take a look on Instagram and you’ll see! Each of these photos were posted within the last day, which shows how amazing the California sunsets are.

The 5 Best Sunset Views in SF

Twin Peaks


Wear comfortable shoes and grab a jacket: the wind at Twin Peaks can be strong, and the hike up is a bit of work! Once you’re at the top, you have stunning views of San Francisco. Stay after sunset and watch the lights of the city come on: this view is beautiful any time of the day.

Twin Peaks: 501 Twin Peaks Blvd, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA

Lands End

A post shared by Robert L. Gee (@_no.27_) on


Lands End is a park in San Francisco that has many hiking trails, including the famous oceanside California Coastal Trail. San Franciscans use this trail to run and hike, but they also take a moment to stop and enjoy the sunset from the beautiful view of the Golden Gate Bridge from Mile Rock Point and Mile Rock Beach.

Lands End: 680 Point Lobos Ave, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA

Bernal Heights Park (and Summit)

A post shared by Karen (@moxykk) on


Bernal Heights Park is built on a hillside, and its park and trails provide stunning 360 degree views of San Francisco. Enjoy the trails and the view past San Francisco: on a clear day, you can see surrounding cities in the Bay Area such as Daly City.

Bernal Heights Park: 3400-3416 Folsom St, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA

Corona Heights Park

A post shared by David Olem (@davidolem) on


Corona Heights Park is next to the Castro and Corona Heights neighborhoods in SF. The views, which are unobstructed, allow visitors to see Twin Peaks, Downtown San Francisco, and beyond. Be careful: the steps leading up to the top do not have handrails, so it can be a little scary!

Corona Heights Park: Roosevelt Way & Museum Way, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA

Alamo Square

A post shared by Steven Lemeshow (@slemeshow) on


This park has views of the most famous houses in San Francisco: the Painted Lady Victorian houses! Alamo Square Park was just renovated and re-opened in May, 2017. In addition to enjoying the architecture of the mansions surrounding the park, visitors can see San Francisco City Hall, Golden Gate Bridge, the Bay Bridge . . . and beautiful California sunsets! 

Alamo Square: surrounded by Webster Street (east), Golden Gate Avenue (north), Divisadero Street (west), and Fell Street (south)

Best Sunset Views in SF

Sunset Color Vocab

How do you describe the beautiful clouds, the amazing colors, and the effects of the ever-changing sunset over the Pacific Ocean waters? These colors will help you

Shade:

Definition: the intensity of a color (whether it has more light or dark to it).

Example: Look at the many shades of pink in tonight’s sunset!

Hue

Definition: a color or shade (similar to the word “shade” . . . although an artist could explain that they are different! For learning English, think of “hue” as a synonym for “shade” or “color”).

Example: Last night’s sunset had so many beautiful hues.

Color + ish (blueish, pinkish, etc.)

Definition: a color similar to the one used in the word, but not exactly the color. (Use this word when you don’t know the exact color you’re describing.)

Example: The sky was a blueish, purplish color: it was so lovely.

Stunning

Definition: very beautiful.

Example: What a stunning view . . . and sunset.

Ablaze

Definition: on fire.

Example: The sky was ablaze during the red and orange sunset.

Cast (verb)

Definition: to cause light or shadow to appear on a surface.

Example: The sun cast its light on the clouds and created a stunning sunset.

Ray

Definition: the streaks/lines of light (from the sun).

Example: The sun’s rays were shining through the clouds as it set.

Best Sunset Views in SF

Radiant

Definition: bright.

Example: The radiant sunset was impossible to capture in a photo. You had to be there to really see  it.

Crimson

Definition: a shade of red (often used to describe the sky).

Example: The crimson sky turned into a deep blue.

Glow

Definition: to shine brightly.

Example: It looked like the sky was glowing.

Trace

Definition: a hint of something; a touch of something.

Example: I could still see traces of orange in the sky an hour after the sun set.

Share your California sunset photos to Facebook and be sure to tag CISL and add #CISL to your photos!

Photos from Pixabay.